After about an hour of intense exercise, glycogen reserves can be completely depleted, and then the body begins to use a second source of energy — fat. Why the body needs fats, and how to take them with effective weight loss. Why are fat reserves not used immediately, and only after an hour? The problem is that fat can only be broken down if oxygen is available. The latter must be ingested to support the process of converting fat into energy, but not to burn glycogen. In the initial stages of exercise, oxygen does not have time to enter the body tissues. It may take from 20 to 40 minutes of training before the fat in the form of energy is maximally accessible to the muscles. Thus, glucose in the blood and glycogen in the muscles come first.
But what do we know about fats, are fats so important in the human diet? In the body, there are three main types of fatty substances: triglycerides, cholesterol and phospholipids. The first — neutral — are stored in adipose tissue and muscles and serve as the main source of energy under intense loads. Cholesterol is a waxy light dense mass, which can be of two types. The first can be called «cholesterol in the blood,» and the second — «cholesterol in food.» An important factor in good health, blood cholesterol is an integral part of cell membranes. Additionally, it does not need to be taken, its body produces from incoming proteins, fats and carbohydrates. But cholesterol with food does not become the kind that it contains in the blood. The liver produces cholesterol in the blood from the dietary fat. Eat a lot of fat and the liver produces a large amount of cholesterol, its excess circulates in the blood and is deposited on the inner walls of the arteries, forming the so-called plaques. Thus, people develop thrombosis and other diseases. The third type of fatty compounds are phospholipids, which are involved mainly in the process of regulating blood coagulation. Together with cholesterol, phospholipids form part of the structure of all cell membranes and are vital components of the membranes of brain cells and the nervous system
From the above, it is clear why the body needs fats. Necessary for weight control — provided that you consume foods that contain fats, and most importantly the right types. Fats in the human diet are divided into three groups, depending on their hydrogen content: saturated, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated. The first come from animal products. A high percentage of saturated fatty acids have beef and oily fats. The latter is present in milk, cheese, cream, ice cream and other dairy products. Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats are usually in a liquid state at room temperature. They are present in nuts, vegetables or seeds.
Polyunsaturated — such as vegetable fats and margarine — are presented in solid form, their chemical composition has been changed in order to harden it, referred to as trans fats. They increase blood cholesterol. Trans fatty acids are more harmful to the heart than saturated fats. Moreover, no amount of them can be considered safe. Therefore, we exclude from the list of fats in the human diet in any case. And as you know, all flour and confectionery products are made on the basis of margarine, respectively, they should be excluded from the diet not only because it is a light carbohydrate, but also as a source of trans fats.
Monounsaturated fatty acids are present in large quantities in canola oil, olive, peanut and other peanut oils. It turns out that monounsaturated fats help maintain normal levels of blood cholesterol.
Foods that contain fats.
The body needs foods that contain polyunsaturated fats. Two of them are alpha-linolenic and linolenic acids or omega-3 and omega-6 fats. These substances are required for normal growth, maintaining the integrity of cell membranes and the health of blood vessels and nerves. In addition, the necessary fats make the skin smooth and moisturized and protect the joints from wear. They are also involved in the process of splitting and processing cholesterol. Vegetable fats such as corn, soybean, safflower and walnut oils are rich in essential fats just like nuts and seeds. The norm of necessary fats is 6-10% of the total amount consumed, or 5-10 g per day. In addition to linolenic acid, there are two more types of omega-3 fatty acids, which are considered necessary and are actually found only in fish. The best ones in terms of the presence of omega-3 fatty acids are wild salmon, mackerel, notothenia, cod, halibut, rainbow trout, crustaceans, sardines, herring and tuna. In addition, omega-3s are found in green leafy vegetables, nuts, canola oil, tofu, and flaxseed. However, they differ from those found in fish oil.
If you lead an active lifestyle and strive to maintain a slim figure, you should control the total amount of fat consumed. Your diet should include: 5% saturated fats, 10-15% monounsaturated and 7-10% polyunsaturated. Following a special nutrition plan for exercising people, first of all, determine your needs for protein and carbohydrates. The remaining calories are “fatty”, most of which should come in the form of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.