A deep approach to the compilation of a full-fledged diet of a schoolboy is required, taking into account the specifics of the children ‘s organism. School curricula require children to be highly mentally active. A small person who is involved in knowledge not only performs hard work, but also grows, develops, and for all this he should receive full food. Intense mental activity, unusual for first graders, is associated with considerable energy consumption.
A modern schoolboy, according to nutritionists, should eat at least four times a day, and there should be a hot dish for breakfast, lunch and dinner. Milk, curd, cheese, fermented dairy products — sources of calcium and protein — are mandatory for the growing body. Calcium and phosphorus deficiency will also help to replenish fish dishes. It is better to use stewed or boiled vegetables (cabbages, beet-roots, onions, carrots, legumes, garlic and cabbages) rather than potatoes or pasta as garnish. During the day pupils should drink at least one-and-a-half litres of liquid, but not carbonated water, but fruit or vegetable juices.
Parents have high hopes for a proper breakfast — because they personally control this process and can be absolutely sure that at least once a day the child ate properly. However, not everyone knows which breakfast is most valuable for a schoolboy.
In addition to sweet tea, jam and confectionery products, the morning breakfast of schoolchildren should necessarily include bakery products, porridge (oatmeal has proved to be the best), pasta, fresh vegetables, apples rich in fiber and pectin are preferred from fruits. These are complex forms of carbohydrates, the supply of which is necessary for the child. The rest of the carbohydrates are better distributed on intermediate receptions during the school day: fruit drinks, tea, coffee, buns, cookies, candy will ensure constant supply of fresh portions of glucose into the blood and will stimulate mental activity of schoolchildren.
The second most important component of food needed to meet the energy needs of schoolchildren is fats. They account for 20 to 30% of the total daily energy costs.
In the food diet of the schoolboy should be present in the necessary amounts of fiber — a mixture of difficult-to-brew substances, which are in stems, leaves and fruits of plants. It is necessary for normal digestion.
Proteins are a basic material that is used to build the tissues and organs of a child. Proteins differ from fats and carbohydrates in that they contain nitrogen, so proteins cannot be replaced by any other substances.
Pupils of 7-11 years of age should receive 70-80 g of protein per day, or 2.5-3 g per 1 kg of weight, and pupils of 12-17 years of age should receive 90-100 g or 2 -2.5 g per 1 kg of weight.
Children and teenagers — young athletes who have increased physical activity (including participants of tourist trips), need to increase the daily rate of protein consumption to 116 — 120 g at the age of 10 — 13. And up to 132 — 140 g at the age of 14 — 17.
Healthy food for a schoolboy
Children ‘s nutrition takes into account the qualitative features of proteins. Thus, the specific weight of animal proteins in the diet of school-age children is 65 — 60%, in adults — 50%. The needs of the children ‘s body are most matched by milk protein, as well as all other components of milk. Therefore, milk should be considered as a mandatory, non-replaceable baby food product. For school-age children, the daily milk rate is 500 ml. Note that 100 g milk corresponds to 12 g milk powder or 25 g condensed.
Essential amino acids: lysine, tryptophan and histidine — are considered growth factors. Their best suppliers are meat, fish and eggs.
Memo for parents: in what products «live» vitamins
Vitamin A — contained in fish, seafood, apricots, liver. It provides normal condition of skin and mucous membranes, improves vision, improves resistance of the body as a whole.
Vitamin B1 — is in rice, vegetables, poultry. It strengthens the nervous system, memory, improves digestion.
Vitamin B2 — found in milk, eggs, broccoli. It strengthens hair, nails, positively affects the state of nerves.
Vitamin PP — in bread from coarse grinding, fish, nuts, vegetables, meat, dried mushrooms, regulates blood circulation and cholesterol level.
Vitamin В6 — in whole grain, egg yolks, beer yeast, beans. It has a beneficial effect on the functions of the nervous system, liver, hematopoietic.
Pantothenic acid — in beans, cauliflower, egg yolks, meat, regulates nervous system functions and intestinal motor function.
Vitamin B12 — in meat, cheese, sea products, promotes hematopoietic creation, stimulates growth, positively affects the state of the central and peripheral nervous system.
Folic acid — in savoy cabbage, spinach, green peas, is necessary for growth and normal hematopoietic creation.
Biotin — in egg yolks, tomatoes, raw rice, soybeans, affects skin, hair, nails and regulates blood sugar levels.
Vitamin C — in rosehips, sweet pepper, black currant, sea buckthorn, useful for immune system, connective tissue, bones, contributes to wound healing.
Vitamin D — in the liver of fish, caviar, eggs, strengthens bones and teeth.
Vitamin E — in nuts and vegetable oils, protects cells from free radicals, affects the functions of the genital and endocrine glands, slows down aging.
Vitamin K — in spinach, salad, marrows and white cabbages, regulates blood coagulation.